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  • Project Data Sheet
    Project Name
    Melamchi Water Supply Project
    Project Number
    31624-023
    Country
    Nepal
    Project Status
    Active
    Project Type / Modality of Assistance
    Loan
    Source of Funding / Amount
    Loan 1820-NEP: Melamchi Water Supply Project
    concessional ordinary capital resources lending / Asian Development Fund
    US$ 120.00 million
    Loan 8191-NEP: Melamchi Water Supply Project
    OPEC Fund for International Development
    US$ 13.70 million
    Loan 8235-NEP: Melamchi Water Supply Project
    Nordic Development Fund
    US$ 10.50 million
    Loan: Melamchi Water Supply Project
    MOF, Japan
    US$ 18.00 million
    Japan Bank for International Cooperation (ODA)
    US$ 47.50 million
    Loan 3110-NEP: Melamchi Water Supply Project - Additional Financing
    concessional ordinary capital resources lending / Asian Development Fund
    US$ 25.00 million
    Strategic Agendas
    Environmentally sustainable growth
    Inclusive economic growth
    Drivers of Change
    Private sector development
    Sector / Subsector
    Water and other urban infrastructure and services / Urban policy, institutional and capacity development - Urban water supply

    Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
    Description
    The main objectives of the Project are to alleviate the chronic water shortage in Kathmandu Valley on a sustainable, long-term basis, and to improve the health and well-being of its inhabitants. The Project also seeks to develop a comprehensive institutional framework for urban water management within the valley. The Project comprises (i) infrastructure development; (ii) social and environmental support; (iii) institutional reforms; and (iv) project implementation support.
    Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
    Kathmandu Valley is the country's single largest urban economy and is critical to Nepal's economic growth. Water is central to the well-being of the population and the key to its productive capacities. However, current water services are grossly inadequate and unreliable causing many people to resort to tankers supplies, bottled water, and both deep and shallow wells. The trend has led to serious environmental concerns as shallow wells are becoming increasingly polluted and deep aquifers are being mined to produce additional water. Poor water quality impacts sharply on public health. In terms of access to water (in the dry season) and quality of water, the effects are greatest on the health of the poor. The Project provides the required opportunity to address both the acute socioeconomic distress caused by the lack of adequate safe water to Kathmandu Valley residents, and the institutional challenges to provide water and wastewater management services on a sustainable basis.
    Impact
    Health and well-being of the people in Kathmandu Valley improved.
    Project Outcome
    Description of Outcome Shortage of potable water in Kathmandu Valley alleviated.
    Progress Toward Outcome Development outcome is expected to be achieved as per revised schedule by end of 1st quarter of 2019 - 25,915 m of main diversion, 1457m adit and 204 m of H/W diversion tunnel excavation has already been achieved to off-take water from Melamchi river. At Head Works, Open Cut excavation out of 102,000 cubic metre completed to construct diversion weir, desilting basin etc to divert water to Melamchi-Sundarijal tunnel. 667.3 Km of distribution pipe out of 677 Km inside valley completed while 77 Km Bulk Distribution System pipe (Sundarijal WTP to 10 Reservoirs around valley) laying completed. 9.9 km of BDS line from Sundarijal WTP and Mahankal Chaur Reservoir is also tested. Construction of 10 Reservoirs around the valley ongoing under additional financing are at the verge of completion.
    Implementation Progress
    Description of Project Outputs
    A. Melamchi Valley (Suproject 1)

    A.1. Raw water diverted from Melamchi Valley to Kathmandu Valley by development of infrastructure, i.e. tunnel, road and water treatment plant.

    A.2. Social and Environmental Support provided in Melamchi Valley.

    A.3. Efficient project management established and capacity building attained

    B. Kathmandu Valley Subproject (Subproject 2)

    B.1. Institutional reforms achieved and efficiently operated

    B.2. Water distribution and wastewater system improved by provision of capital works

    B.3. Social and environmental support provided in Kathmandu Valley

    Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)
    A. Melamchi Valley (Subproject 1)

    A.1 MWSDB terminated the previous contract for the Melamchi tunnel on 26 September 2012 due to unsatisfactory performance of the then contractor. As of the date of termination, the physical progress (tunnel excavation) was 22% (6.3 km out of 27.5 km. Rebidding for the Melamchi tunnel Contract started in November 2012. MWSDB issued the letter of acceptance to the winning contractor on 21 June 2013, the contract was signed with Cooperativa Muratorie Cementisti di Ravenna (CMC) of Italy on 15 July 2013, and the letter to commence was issued on 1 October 2013. The initial progress of the new contractor of the Melamchi tunnel is encouraging in terms of mobilization of key personnel, equipment, machinery, materials and start-up activities. Advance payment was made to the contractor in October 2013 and steady progress was achieved until the progress was adversely affected by 25 April 2015 Earthquake and short of construction materials and fuel due to closure of southern Border. However, completion of tunnel excavation with cumulative total of 27,576m tunnel length has been achieved as of 12 April 2018. After several backstopping and monitoring from employer and ADB regarding cash flow problem of contractor, the final works on tunnel smoothed and as of 15 September 2018, 13.7 km invert lining is finished with 12.1 km remaining. Works at H/W with alternative diversion pipe and temporary diversion weir as well as vent shaft works are ongoing. It is expected to be completed by 1st quarter of 2018.

    The water Treatment Plant (WTP) to utilize water from Melamchi tunnel has been implemented with JICA funding. MWSDB and the contractor signed the WTP contract on 10 July 2013. WTP is 100% completed and tested.

    Upgrading construction works in UAR 02 were earlier disturbed due to concerns of some local residents. Now, the works of UAR 02 have been completed.

    Construction of 18-km main access road was completed and opened up between Melamchi Pul Bazar and Timbu.

    A.2. Resettlement Plans and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) were prepared and are under implementation for both Subproject 1 and 2 following the split into two distinct subprojects in 2009. Activities undertaken in Subproject 1 (in Melamchi valley) include several activities for social and economic development of the areas in the Melamchi Valley such as (i) construction of health centers and provision of essential drugs; (ii) construction of school buildings and provision of educational kits to schools; and (iii) a forest nursery in Timbu.

    The social uplift program (SUP) under the MWSP is being implemented to promote widespread, ongoing, and meaningful participation of key stakeholders. Compliance with Resettlement Plan and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is monitored by the MWSDB with support from the design and supervision consultant (DSC). Further, services of a Safeguards and Social Development Support consultant (SSDS) have also been taken for monitoring at a second level. MWSDB has been specifically asked to ensure compliance with effluent discharge standards.

    A.3 MWSDB is the main agency for project management of Melamchi Subproject 1 (Melamchi tunnel construction). Inputs of project management consultant finished. MWSDB is supported by new design and supervision consultant (DSC). Improved coordination and communication among MWSDB, new DSC, the new contractor (CMC), and the safeguards and social development support consultant (SSDS) noted. All the parties are coordinating to improve the pace, quality, safety, and safeguards compliance of the works. The DSC is taking more proactive role and is actively supporting MWSDB to (i) ensure implementation of the agreed action plans, (ii) decide expeditiously the contractual matters such as claims, variations, etc., (iii) ensure coordination with DSC, contractor, local residents, army and other relevant government authorities, and (iv) monitor processing payments to the contractor in a timely manner. Semi-annual safeguard monitoring reports are regularly being submitted and disclosed.

    B. Kathmandu Valley Subproject (Subproject 2)

    B.1. For Subproject 2, a Project Implementation Directorate (PID-KUKL) has been established since 2009 with staffing from Department of Water Supply & Sanitation and KUKL, which has been carrying out the activities of Subproject 2.

    KUKL has recruited capacity building and public-private partnership (CBP) team in November 2010. With support from this team, KUKL is working to achieving the targets of lease and license agreements. KUKL submitted to WSTFC a new proposal for increase in tariff, which was approved by WSTFC on 14 July 2013 with conditions to be fulfilled by KUKL for service improvement. This will help KUKL in improving its operations and service delivery to citizens.

    B.2. Under Subproject 2, distribution network improvement works are expected to reduce water losses, improve service delivery by enhanced hours and higher pressure of water supply for consumers. The PID for Subproject 2 has awarded 47 contracts out of which 39 contracts have been completed and 8 contracts are about to complete. There are no major issues with implementation of this Subproject. Most of the contracts were completed in 2013 and the remaining contracts by are expected to be completed by end of 2018. Advance preparation of designs and bidding documents for the "Kathmandu Valley Water Supply Improvement, Project," (L2776-NEP) enhanced the readiness of the project. The distribution network improvement works in Kathmandu Valley are being carried out with the objectives of reduction of non-revenue water and improvement of service delivery to the citizens.

    B.3. Substantial improvement in water supply is expected after completion of the Melamchi tunnel by 2016. Safeguards unit has been fully staffed with social development officer, environmental officer, and legal officer. This unit is supervising compliance with safeguards of ongoing physical works with support of supervision consultant.

    Resettlement Plan and Environment Management Plan (EMP) have been prepared and are being implemented. Several teams of consultants have been recruited in accordance with staggered schedules. Semiannual safeguard monitoring reports and environmental report are regularly being submitted and disclosed.

    Geographical Location Ambathan, Bagmati Zone, Bansbari, Bhotechaur, Chandeni, Deupur, Gyalthum, Jaisithok, Kabhre Palanchok, Lamidada, MahankalChaur, Manohara, Melamchi, Nakkhu, Phatkeswor, Ribarma, Sagarmatha Zone, Sindhu, Sundarijal, Timbu, Tinkune
    Safeguard Categories
    Environment A
    Involuntary Resettlement A
    Indigenous Peoples C
    Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
    Environmental Aspects Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies (2000, 2001, 2002) were carried at the time of approval of the Project. In the earlier phase of implementation, compliance with the requirements was regularly monitored by the consultant CEMAT/Schemes JV in association with EEC who submitted their final Environmental Management Plan (EMP) report in 2009. In December 2009, Safeguard and Social Development Support (SSDS) ICON-CMS JV consultant was mobilized. At the first level, MWSDB and DSC are monitoring compliance with environmental safeguards. As the second level, SSDS consultant is monitoring the compliance with EMP such as monitoring water quality, noise quality and air quality, fish population and diversity assessment, measurement of discharge, staff gauge reading and nursery establishment. Environmental monitoring and reporting is ongoing.
    Involuntary Resettlement Involuntary resettlement follows the requirements of ADB and the Government. ADB Policy and Land Acquisition Act (LAA) 2034 (1977 A.D.) are being complied with, such as the provisions related to compensation standards and benefits, compensation for lost assets at market value, provision for alternative land and compensation for standard crops and trees. MWSDB prepared a Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF), approved by the Cabinet in 2057 (2000 A.D.), to cover resettlement-related needs of Project affected persons (PAPs). The Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) compensation and mitigation measures include the following: compensation upon acquisition of land, crop and trees and house or commercial enterprises, mitigation for the loss of water due to diversion to Melamachi River, displacement allowances, rehabilitation measures, loss of government property, loss of community facilities and resources, community losses, and general counseling. Land acquisition process is completed and resettlement monitoring and reporting is ongoing.
    Indigenous Peoples
    Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
    During Project Design The Project was designed with extensive participation of stakeholders, including beneficiaries, adversely affected people, village development committees and ward representatives, district development committees and municipal officials and representatives, ministries concerned and MWSDB, the private sector, external funding agencies, NGOs, and consultants.
    During Project Implementation The Project is encouraging direct participation of beneficiaries through social uplift program implementation, representation of adversely affected people in the compensation determination committee, and representation of Kathmandu Valley beneficiaries in water users associations. The Project is also undertaking consensus building at all levels on issues such as water services, environmental and social mitigation and compensation, and employment.
    Business Opportunities
    Consulting Services The selection and engagement of all remaining consulting services to be financed by ADB shall be in accordance with the provisions of Schedule 4, Section D, paras. 10 to 12 of the Amended and Restated Loan Agreement and with the ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2007, as amended from time to time) using the quality-and cost-based method.
    Procurement Procurement of all remaining goods and works to be financed out of proceeds of the Loans will be in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines (2007, as amended from time to time).
    Responsible ADB Officer
    Castro-Wooldridge, Vivian
    Responsible ADB Department
    South Asia Department
    Responsible ADB Division
    Urban Development and Water Division, SARD
    Executing Agencies
    Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL)
    Tripureshwar, Kathmandu, Nepal
    Melamchi Water Supply Development Board
    H.P. Sharma
    Kathmandu, Nepal
    Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transport
    Deep Basnyat
    [email protected]
    Kathmandu, Nepal
    Ministry of Urban Development
    Mr. Kishore Thapa
    Singhadurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal
    Timetable
    Concept Clearance 08 Mar 1999
    Fact Finding 03 Jul 2000 to 24 Jul 2000
    MRM 15 Sep 2000
    Approval 03 Jul 2008
    Last Review Mission -
    PDS Creation Date 12 Feb 2007
    Last PDS Update 25 Sep 2018
    Loan 1820-NEP
    Milestones
    Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
    Original Revised Actual
    21 Dec 2000 24 Jan 2001 28 Nov 2001 31 Mar 2007 30 Jun 2019 -
    Financing Plan Loan Utilization
    Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
    Project Cost 303.50 Cumulative Contract Awards
    ADB 120.00 21 Dec 2000 126.65 0.00 93%
    Counterpart 118.00 Cumulative Disbursements
    Cofinancing 65.50 21 Dec 2000 130.19 0.00 96%
    Category
    Sector
    Safeguards
    Social
    Financial
    Economic
    Others
    Rating
    Satisfactory
    Satisfactory
    Satisfactory
    Satisfactory
    -
    Satisfactory
    Loan 3110-NEP
    Milestones
    Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
    Original Revised Actual
    11 Feb 2014 07 Apr 2014 25 Apr 2014 30 Jun 2017 30 Jun 2019 -
    Financing Plan Loan Utilization
    Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
    Project Cost 38.08 Cumulative Contract Awards
    ADB 25.00 11 Feb 2014 18.24 0.00 81%
    Counterpart 13.08 Cumulative Disbursements
    Cofinancing 0.00 11 Feb 2014 18.28 0.00 81%
    Category
    Sector
    Safeguards
    Social
    Financial
    Economic
    Others
    Rating
    Satisfactory
    Satisfactory
    Satisfactory
    Satisfactory
    -
    Satisfactory
    Loan 8191-NEP
    Milestones
    Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
    Original Revised Actual
    22 Nov 2000 21 Sep 2001 01 Jul 2002 30 Jun 2003 31 Dec 2008 31 Dec 2008
    Financing Plan Loan Utilization
    Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
    Project Cost 13.70 Cumulative Contract Awards
    ADB 0.00 22 Nov 2000 0.00 13.70 100%
    Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
    Cofinancing 13.70 22 Nov 2000 0.00 13.70 100%
    Loan 8235-NEP
    Milestones
    Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
    Original Revised Actual
    03 Jul 2008 03 Jul 2008 03 Jul 2008 31 Jul 2013 30 Sep 2015 11 Nov 2015
    Financing Plan Loan Utilization
    Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
    Project Cost 10.50 Cumulative Contract Awards
    ADB 0.00 03 Jul 2008 0.00 10.06 100%
    Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
    Cofinancing 10.50 03 Jul 2008 0.00 10.06 100%
    Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

    The Public Communications Policy (***) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.

    The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.

    In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.

    Project Data Sheet Project Name Melamchi Water Supply Project Project Number 31624-023 Country Nepal Project Status Active Project Type / Modality of Assistance Loan Source of Funding / Amount Loan 1820-NEP: Melamchi Water Supply Project concessional ordinary capital resources lending / Asian Development Fund US$ 120.00 million Loan 8191-NEP: Melamchi Water Supply Project OPEC Fund for International Development US$ 13.70 million Loan 8235-NEP: Melamchi Water Supply Project Nordic Development Fund US$ 10.50 million Loan: Melamchi Water Supply Project MOF, Japan US$ 18.00 million Japan Bank for International Cooperation (ODA) US$ 47.50 million Loan 3110-NEP: Melamchi Water Supply Project - Additional Financing concessional ordinary capital resources lending / Asian Development Fund US$ 25.00 million Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth Inclusive economic growth Drivers of Change Private sector development Sector / Subsector Water and other urban infrastructure and services / Urban policy, institutional and capacity development - Urban water supply Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Description The main objectives of the Project are to alleviate the chronic water shortage in Kathmandu Valley on a sustainable, long-term basis, and to improve the health and well-being of its inhabitants. The Project also seeks to develop a comprehensive institutional framework for urban water management within the valley. The Project comprises (i) infrastructure development; (ii) social and environmental support; (iii) institutional reforms; and (iv) project implementation support. Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy Kathmandu Valley is the country's single largest urban economy and is critical to Nepal's economic growth. Water is central to the well-being of the population and the key to its productive capacities. However, current water services are grossly inadequate and unreliable causing many people to resort to tankers supplies, bottled water, and both deep and shallow wells. The trend has led to serious environmental concerns as shallow wells are becoming increasingly polluted and deep aquifers are being mined to produce additional water. Poor water quality impacts sharply on public health. In terms of access to water (in the dry season) and quality of water, the effects are greatest on the health of the poor. The Project provides the required opportunity to address both the acute socioeconomic distress caused by the lack of adequate safe water to Kathmandu Valley residents, and the institutional challenges to provide water and wastewater management services on a sustainable basis. Impact Health and well-being of the people in Kathmandu Valley improved. Project Outcome Description of Outcome Shortage of potable water in Kathmandu Valley alleviated. Progress Toward Outcome Development outcome is expected to be achieved as per revised schedule by end of 1st quarter of 2019 - 25,915 m of main diversion, 1457m adit and 204 m of H/W diversion tunnel excavation has already been achieved to off-take water from Melamchi river. At Head Works, Open Cut excavation out of 102,000 cubic metre completed to construct diversion weir, desilting basin etc to divert water to Melamchi-Sundarijal tunnel. 667.3 Km of distribution pipe out of 677 Km inside valley completed while 77 Km Bulk Distribution System pipe (Sundarijal WTP to 10 Reservoirs around valley) laying completed. 9.9 km of BDS line from Sundarijal WTP and Mahankal Chaur Reservoir is also tested. Construction of 10 Reservoirs around the valley ongoing under additional financing are at the verge of completion. Implementation Progress Description of Project Outputs A. Melamchi Valley (Suproject 1) A.1. Raw water diverted from Melamchi Valley to Kathmandu Valley by development of infrastructure, i.e. tunnel, road and water treatment plant. A.2. Social and Environmental Support provided in Melamchi Valley. A.3. Efficient project management established and capacity building attained B. Kathmandu Valley Subproject (Subproject 2) B.1. Institutional reforms achieved and efficiently operated B.2. Water distribution and wastewater system improved by provision of capital works B.3. Social and environmental support provided in Kathmandu Valley Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues) A. Melamchi Valley (Subproject 1) A.1 MWSDB terminated the previous contract for the Melamchi tunnel on 26 September 2012 due to unsatisfactory performance of the then contractor. As of the date of termination, the physical progress (tunnel excavation) was 22% (6.3 km out of 27.5 km. Rebidding for the Melamchi tunnel Contract started in November 2012. MWSDB issued the letter of acceptance to the winning contractor on 21 June 2013, the contract was signed with Cooperativa Muratorie Cementisti di Ravenna (CMC) of Italy on 15 July 2013, and the letter to commence was issued on 1 October 2013. The initial progress of the new contractor of the Melamchi tunnel is encouraging in terms of mobilization of key personnel, equipment, machinery, materials and start-up activities. Advance payment was made to the contractor in October 2013 and steady progress was achieved until the progress was adversely affected by 25 April 2015 Earthquake and short of construction materials and fuel due to closure of southern Border. However, completion of tunnel excavation with cumulative total of 27,576m tunnel length has been achieved as of 12 April 2018. After several backstopping and monitoring from employer and ADB regarding cash flow problem of contractor, the final works on tunnel smoothed and as of 15 September 2018, 13.7 km invert lining is finished with 12.1 km remaining. Works at H/W with alternative diversion pipe and temporary diversion weir as well as vent shaft works are ongoing. It is expected to be completed by 1st quarter of 2018. The water Treatment Plant (WTP) to utilize water from Melamchi tunnel has been implemented with JICA funding. MWSDB and the contractor signed the WTP contract on 10 July 2013. WTP is 100% completed and tested. Upgrading construction works in UAR 02 were earlier disturbed due to concerns of some local residents. Now, the works of UAR 02 have been completed. Construction of 18-km main access road was completed and opened up between Melamchi Pul Bazar and Timbu. A.2. Resettlement Plans and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) were prepared and are under implementation for both Subproject 1 and 2 following the split into two distinct subprojects in 2009. Activities undertaken in Subproject 1 (in Melamchi valley) include several activities for social and economic development of the areas in the Melamchi Valley such as (i) construction of health centers and provision of essential drugs; (ii) construction of school buildings and provision of educational kits to schools; and (iii) a forest nursery in Timbu. The social uplift program (SUP) under the MWSP is being implemented to promote widespread, ongoing, and meaningful participation of key stakeholders. Compliance with Resettlement Plan and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is monitored by the MWSDB with support from the design and supervision consultant (DSC). Further, services of a Safeguards and Social Development Support consultant (SSDS) have also been taken for monitoring at a second level. MWSDB has been specifically asked to ensure compliance with effluent discharge standards. A.3 MWSDB is the main agency for project management of Melamchi Subproject 1 (Melamchi tunnel construction). Inputs of project management consultant finished. MWSDB is supported by new design and supervision consultant (DSC). Improved coordination and communication among MWSDB, new DSC, the new contractor (CMC), and the safeguards and social development support consultant (SSDS) noted. All the parties are coordinating to improve the pace, quality, safety, and safeguards compliance of the works. The DSC is taking more proactive role and is actively supporting MWSDB to (i) ensure implementation of the agreed action plans, (ii) decide expeditiously the contractual matters such as claims, variations, etc., (iii) ensure coordination with DSC, contractor, local residents, army and other relevant government authorities, and (iv) monitor processing payments to the contractor in a timely manner. Semi-annual safeguard monitoring reports are regularly being submitted and disclosed. B. Kathmandu Valley Subproject (Subproject 2) B.1. For Subproject 2, a Project Implementation Directorate (PID-KUKL) has been established since 2009 with staffing from Department of Water Supply & Sanitation and KUKL, which has been carrying out the activities of Subproject 2. KUKL has recruited capacity building and public-private partnership (CBP) team in November 2010. With support from this team, KUKL is working to achieving the targets of lease and license agreements. KUKL submitted to WSTFC a new proposal for increase in tariff, which was approved by WSTFC on 14 July 2013 with conditions to be fulfilled by KUKL for service improvement. This will help KUKL in improving its operations and service delivery to citizens. B.2. Under Subproject 2, distribution network improvement works are expected to reduce water losses, improve service delivery by enhanced hours and higher pressure of water supply for consumers. The PID for Subproject 2 has awarded 47 contracts out of which 39 contracts have been completed and 8 contracts are about to complete. There are no major issues with implementation of this Subproject. Most of the contracts were completed in 2013 and the remaining contracts by are expected to be completed by end of 2018. Advance preparation of designs and bidding documents for the "Kathmandu Valley Water Supply Improvement, Project," (L2776-NEP) enhanced the readiness of the project. The distribution network improvement works in Kathmandu Valley are being carried out with the objectives of reduction of non-revenue water and improvement of service delivery to the citizens. B.3. Substantial improvement in water supply is expected after completion of the Melamchi tunnel by 2016. Safeguards unit has been fully staffed with social development officer, environmental officer, and legal officer. This unit is supervising compliance with safeguards of ongoing physical works with support of supervision consultant. Resettlement Plan and Environment Management Plan (EMP) have been prepared and are being implemented. Several teams of consultants have been recruited in accordance with staggered schedules. Semiannual safeguard monitoring reports and environmental report are regularly being submitted and disclosed. Geographical Location Ambathan, Bagmati Zone, Bansbari, Bhotechaur, Chandeni, Deupur, Gyalthum, Jaisithok, Kabhre Palanchok, Lamidada, MahankalChaur, Manohara, Melamchi, Nakkhu, Phatkeswor, Ribarma, Sagarmatha Zone, Sindhu, Sundarijal, Timbu, Tinkune Safeguard Categories Environment A Involuntary Resettlement A Indigenous Peoples C Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects Environmental Aspects Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies (2000, 2001, 2002) were carried at the time of approval of the Project. In the earlier phase of implementation, compliance with the requirements was regularly monitored by the consultant CEMAT/Schemes JV in association with EEC who submitted their final Environmental Management Plan (EMP) report in 2009. In December 2009, Safeguard and Social Development Support (SSDS) ICON-CMS JV consultant was mobilized. At the first level, MWSDB and DSC are monitoring compliance with environmental safeguards. As the second level, SSDS consultant is monitoring the compliance with EMP such as monitoring water quality, noise quality and air quality, fish population and diversity assessment, measurement of discharge, staff gauge reading and nursery establishment. Environmental monitoring and reporting is ongoing. Involuntary Resettlement Involuntary resettlement follows the requirements of ADB and the Government. ADB Policy and Land Acquisition Act (LAA) 2034 (1977 A.D.) are being complied with, such as the provisions related to compensation standards and benefits, compensation for lost assets at market value, provision for alternative land and compensation for standard crops and trees. MWSDB prepared a Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF), approved by the Cabinet in 2057 (2000 A.D.), to cover resettlement-related needs of Project affected persons (PAPs). The Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) compensation and mitigation measures include the following: compensation upon acquisition of land, crop and trees and house or commercial enterprises, mitigation for the loss of water due to diversion to Melamachi River, displacement allowances, rehabilitation measures, loss of government property, loss of community facilities and resources, community losses, and general counseling. Land acquisition process is completed and resettlement monitoring and reporting is ongoing. Indigenous Peoples Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation During Project Design The Project was designed with extensive participation of stakeholders, including beneficiaries, adversely affected people, village development committees and ward representatives, district development committees and municipal officials and representatives, ministries concerned and MWSDB, the private sector, external funding agencies, NGOs, and consultants. During Project Implementation The Project is encouraging direct participation of beneficiaries through social uplift program implementation, representation of adversely affected people in the compensation determination committee, and representation of Kathmandu Valley beneficiaries in water users associations. The Project is also undertaking consensus building at all levels on issues such as water services, environmental and social mitigation and compensation, and employment. Business Opportunities Consulting Services The selection and engagement of all remaining consulting services to be financed by ADB shall be in accordance with the provisions of Schedule 4, Section D, paras. 10 to 12 of the Amended and Restated Loan Agreement and with the ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2007, as amended from time to time) using the quality-and cost-based method. Procurement Procurement of all remaining goods and works to be financed out of proceeds of the Loans will be in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines (2007, as amended from time to time). Responsible ADB Officer Castro-Wooldridge, Vivian Responsible ADB Department South Asia Department Responsible ADB Division Urban Development and Water Division, SARD Executing Agencies Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) Tripureshwar, Kathmandu, Nepal Melamchi Water Supply Development Board H.P. Sharma Kathmandu, Nepal Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transport Deep Basnyat [email protected] Kathmandu, Nepal Ministry of Urban Development Mr. Kishore Thapa Singhadurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal Timetable Concept Clearance 08 Mar 1999 Fact Finding 03 Jul 2000 to 24 Jul 2000 MRM 15 Sep 2000 Approval 03 Jul 2008 Last Review Mission - PDS Creation Date 12 Feb 2007 Last PDS Update 25 Sep 2018 Loan 1820-NEP Milestones Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing Original Revised Actual 21 Dec 2000 24 Jan 2001 28 Nov 2001 31 Mar 2007 30 Jun 2019 - Financing Plan Loan Utilization Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage Project Cost 303.50 Cumulative Contract Awards ADB 120.00 21 Dec 2000 126.65 0.00 93% Counterpart 118.00 Cumulative Disbursements Cofinancing 65.50 21 Dec 2000 130.19 0.00 96% Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others Rating Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory - Satisfactory Loan 3110-NEP Milestones Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing Original Revised Actual 11 Feb 2014 07 Apr 2014 25 Apr 2014 30 Jun 2017 30 Jun 2019 - Financing Plan Loan Utilization Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage Project Cost 38.08 Cumulative Contract Awards ADB 25.00 11 Feb 2014 18.24 0.00 81% Counterpart 13.08 Cumulative Disbursements Cofinancing 0.00 11 Feb 2014 18.28 0.00 81% Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others Rating Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory - Satisfactory Loan 8191-NEP Milestones Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing Original Revised Actual 22 Nov 2000 21 Sep 2001 01 Jul 2002 30 Jun 2003 31 Dec 2008 31 Dec 2008 Financing Plan Loan Utilization Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage Project Cost 13.70 Cumulative Contract Awards ADB 0.00 22 Nov 2000 0.00 13.70 100% Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements Cofinancing 13.70 22 Nov 2000 0.00 13.70 100% Loan 8235-NEP Milestones Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing Original Revised Actual 03 Jul 2008 03 Jul 2008 03 Jul 2008 31 Jul 2013 30 Sep 2015 11 Nov 2015 Financing Plan Loan Utilization Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage Project Cost 10.50 Cumulative Contract Awards ADB 0.00 03 Jul 2008 0.00 10.06 100% Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements Cofinancing 10.50 03 Jul 2008 0.00 10.06 100% Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative. The Public Communications Policy (PCP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced. The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures. In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
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  • Melamchi Water Supply Project
    The Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) is considered to be the most viable long-term alternative to ease the chronic water shortage situation within the Kathmandu Valley. The Project is designed to divert about 170 MLD of fresh water to Kathmandu Valley from the Melamchi River in Sindhupalchowk district. Augmenting this supply by adding about a further 170 MLD each from the Yangri and Larke rivers, which lie in the upstream proximity of Melamchi are also being investigated as future supply sources.

    Ministry of Physical Planning and Works (MPPW) is the executing agency for the Project and an autonomous Melamchi Water Supply Development Board, formulated for Project implementation, is the implementing agency.

    The Board, as an independent project implementing body has come a long way to collect the necessary funds to implement the project since 1998. The major donor of the project, Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a Loan 1820-NEP (SF) on 21st December, 2000 and it was effective from 28th November, 2001. After six years of project implementation, Government of Nepal and the project’s funding partners, felt necessicity to change the scopes of project implementation arrangement by splitting the MWSP into the following two distinct sub-projects in 2007;

    (i) the Melamchi River Water Diversion Subproject (Sub-Project -1) covering all project activities in Melamchi Valley including constructions of Water Diversion Tunnel (WDT) and Water Treatment Plant (WTP) at Sundarijal and

    (ii) Kathmandu Valley Water Supply and Sanitation Subproject (Subproject -2) comprising water distribution activities in Kathmandu Valley. EMP implementation requirements as per EIA and EMP of MWSP, 2000 and 2001 have been covered both of these sub-projects.

    The MWSP originally comprised four parts:
    i) infrastructure development;
    ii) social and environmental support;
    iii) institutional reforms; and
    iv) project implementation support.

    A complementary Kathmandu Valley Water Services Sector Development Program (SDP), has also been effective from December 2004 to support reforms and institutional development in the water services sector engaging private sector participation (PSP).

    Various factors including political events during the past 6 years of MWSP and 3 years of SDP implementation did not make it possible to complete the project as planned. The withdrawal of the three co-financing development partners for the Project – the World Bank, NORAD, and SIDA resulted in a shortfall of $133 million in the originally projected cost of US$ 464 million as priced in 2000 AD.

    ADB approved the proposed project restructuring, mainly reflecting the abovementioned financial and institutional changes made during its 6 years of implementation and proposing the removal of identified obstacles in implementation, in February 2008. After the restructuring, the Project has now been revised to a total of $317.3 million and a completion date of June 2013. The cost will be jointly funded by several agencies such as: ADB (Loan 1820-NEP) – $137 m, JBIC – $ 47.5 m, JICA – $18 m, NDF – $10.5 m, OPEC – $13.7 m, and GoN – $ 90.6 million.

    Out of US$317.3 million Subproject I ,Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) will be utilizing US$ 249.4 million with following contribution of different donors ADB – US$ 103.8 m 41.62%, JBIC(JICA) – US$47.5 m 19%, NDF- US$- 10.5 m 4.2%, OPEC- US$ 13.7m 5.5% and GoN US$73.9 m (29.63%)

    The revised Project comprises three components: Part A. Melamchi Valley Subproject (Subproject I), Part B. Kathmandu Valley Subproject (Subproject II), and Part C. Project Support (Subproject III) as described below:

    Part A. Subproject I Comprises:

    Construction of Melamchi Diversion Scheme to carry out about 170 MLD of raw water from the Melamchi River into Kathmandu Valley through a 26.0 km tunnel;
    Construction of about 43 km of access roads and upgrading of about 29 km of road to assist the construction of the Project facilities and their maintenance;
    Construction of a water treatment plant with an initial capacity of at least 170 MLD and expandable to about 510 MLD to treat the Melamchi River Water; and
    Development and implementation of a social upliftment program, including – a) buffer zone development, b) rural electrification, c) health, d) education, and e) income generation/community development.
    Part B. Subproject II Comprises:

    Rehabilitation and improvement of distribution networks at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels, house connections, rehabilitation and improvement of existing water supply system including intakes, transmission lines, water treatment plants and service reservoirs;
    Construction of a bulk distribution system comprising service reservoirs strategically located in the Kathmandu Valley and bulk water supply pipelines leading to the reservoirs from the water treatment plant in the pipeline and will be constructed once the fund is available;
    Undertaking the improvements of waste water system in a phased manner; and
    Development of a shallow ground water well field at Manohara within the Kathmandu Valley to extract, treat, and distribute about 20 MLD of water in Kathmandu valley.
    Part C. Subproject III Comprises:

    Development and implementation of i) a resettlement action plan; and ii) an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to mitigate direct and indirect Project impacts, including a) hygiene education, b) public relations programs, c) (if required by ADB) a social and environmental monitoring program undertake by a panel of domestic experts, and d) a groundwater monitoring program; and
    Provision of support to carry out various Project administration activities, including PMU operations, design and construction supervision, social and environmental activities and training provision of incremental administration and operation costs.
    Melamchi Water Supply Project The Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) is considered to be the most viable long-term alternative to ease the chronic water shortage situation within the Kathmandu Valley. The Project is designed to divert about 170 MLD of fresh water to Kathmandu Valley from the Melamchi River in Sindhupalchowk district. Augmenting this supply by adding about a further 170 MLD each from the Yangri and Larke rivers, which lie in the upstream proximity of Melamchi are also being investigated as future supply sources. Ministry of Physical Planning and Works (MPPW) is the executing agency for the Project and an autonomous Melamchi Water Supply Development Board, formulated for Project implementation, is the implementing agency. The Board, as an independent project implementing body has come a long way to collect the necessary funds to implement the project since 1998. The major donor of the project, Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a Loan 1820-NEP (SF) on 21st December, 2000 and it was effective from 28th November, 2001. After six years of project implementation, Government of Nepal and the project’s funding partners, felt necessicity to change the scopes of project implementation arrangement by splitting the MWSP into the following two distinct sub-projects in 2007; (i) the Melamchi River Water Diversion Subproject (Sub-Project -1) covering all project activities in Melamchi Valley including constructions of Water Diversion Tunnel (WDT) and Water Treatment Plant (WTP) at Sundarijal and (ii) Kathmandu Valley Water Supply and Sanitation Subproject (Subproject -2) comprising water distribution activities in Kathmandu Valley. EMP implementation requirements as per EIA and EMP of MWSP, 2000 and 2001 have been covered both of these sub-projects. The MWSP originally comprised four parts: i) infrastructure development; ii) social and environmental support; iii) institutional reforms; and iv) project implementation support. A complementary Kathmandu Valley Water Services Sector Development Program (SDP), has also been effective from December 2004 to support reforms and institutional development in the water services sector engaging private sector participation (PSP). Various factors including political events during the past 6 years of MWSP and 3 years of SDP implementation did not make it possible to complete the project as planned. The withdrawal of the three co-financing development partners for the Project – the World Bank, NORAD, and SIDA resulted in a shortfall of $133 million in the originally projected cost of US$ 464 million as priced in 2000 AD. ADB approved the proposed project restructuring, mainly reflecting the abovementioned financial and institutional changes made during its 6 years of implementation and proposing the removal of identified obstacles in implementation, in February 2008. After the restructuring, the Project has now been revised to a total of $317.3 million and a completion date of June 2013. The cost will be jointly funded by several agencies such as: ADB (Loan 1820-NEP) – $137 m, JBIC – $ 47.5 m, JICA – $18 m, NDF – $10.5 m, OPEC – $13.7 m, and GoN – $ 90.6 million. Out of US$317.3 million Subproject I ,Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) will be utilizing US$ 249.4 million with following contribution of different donors ADB – US$ 103.8 m 41.62%, JBIC(JICA) – US$47.5 m 19%, NDF- US$- 10.5 m 4.2%, OPEC- US$ 13.7m 5.5% and GoN US$73.9 m (29.63%) The revised Project comprises three components: Part A. Melamchi Valley Subproject (Subproject I), Part B. Kathmandu Valley Subproject (Subproject II), and Part C. Project Support (Subproject III) as described below: Part A. Subproject I Comprises: Construction of Melamchi Diversion Scheme to carry out about 170 MLD of raw water from the Melamchi River into Kathmandu Valley through a 26.0 km tunnel; Construction of about 43 km of access roads and upgrading of about 29 km of road to assist the construction of the Project facilities and their maintenance; Construction of a water treatment plant with an initial capacity of at least 170 MLD and expandable to about 510 MLD to treat the Melamchi River Water; and Development and implementation of a social upliftment program, including – a) buffer zone development, b) rural electrification, c) health, d) education, and e) income generation/community development. Part B. Subproject II Comprises: Rehabilitation and improvement of distribution networks at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels, house connections, rehabilitation and improvement of existing water supply system including intakes, transmission lines, water treatment plants and service reservoirs; Construction of a bulk distribution system comprising service reservoirs strategically located in the Kathmandu Valley and bulk water supply pipelines leading to the reservoirs from the water treatment plant in the pipeline and will be constructed once the fund is available; Undertaking the improvements of waste water system in a phased manner; and Development of a shallow ground water well field at Manohara within the Kathmandu Valley to extract, treat, and distribute about 20 MLD of water in Kathmandu valley. Part C. Subproject III Comprises: Development and implementation of i) a resettlement action plan; and ii) an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to mitigate direct and indirect Project impacts, including a) hygiene education, b) public relations programs, c) (if required by ADB) a social and environmental monitoring program undertake by a panel of domestic experts, and d) a groundwater monitoring program; and Provision of support to carry out various Project administration activities, including PMU operations, design and construction supervision, social and environmental activities and training provision of incremental administration and operation costs.
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  • This chapter is a brief summary of the history of Computers. It is supplemented by the two PBS documentaries video tapes "Inventing the Future" And "The Paperback Computer". The chapter highlights some of the advances to look for in the documentaries.
    In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things:

    The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data:
    Vacuum Tubes (1950s) - one bit on the size of a thumb;
    Transistors (1950s and 1960s) - one bit on the size of a fingernail;
    Integrated Circuits (1960s and 70s) - thousands of bits on the size of a hand
    Silicon computer chips (1970s and on) - millions of bits on the size of a finger nail.

    The progression of the ease of use of computers:
    Almost impossible to use except by very patient geniuses (1950s);
    Programmable by highly trained people only (1960s and 1970s);
    Useable by just about anyone (1980s and on).
    to see how computers got smaller, cheaper, and easier to use.

    First Computers

    Eniac:
    Eniac Computer
    The first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) used a word of 10 decimal digits instead of binary ones like previous automated calculators/computers. ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, using nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes. Storage of all those vacuum tubes and the machinery required to keep the cool took up over 167 square meters (1800 square feet) of floor space. Nonetheless, it had punched-card input and output and arithmetically had 1 multiplier, 1 divider-square rooter, and 20 adders employing decimal "ring counters," which served as adders and also as quick-access (0.0002 seconds) read-write register storage.

    The executable instructions composing a program were embodied in the separate units of ENIAC, which were plugged together to form a route through the machine for the flow of computations. These connections had to be redone for each different problem, together with presetting function tables and switches. This "wire-your-own" instruction technique was inconvenient, and only with some license could ENIAC be considered programmable; it was, however, efficient in handling the particular programs for which it had been designed. ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC) and was productively used from 1946 to 1955. A controversy developed in 1971, however, over the patentability of ENIAC's basic digital concepts, the claim being made that another U.S. physicist, John V. Atanasoff, had already used the same ideas in a simpler vacuum-tube device he built in the 1930s while at Iowa State College. In 1973, the court found in favor of the company using Atanasoff claim and Atanasoff received the acclaim he rightly deserved.









    Progression of Hardware

    In the 1950's two devices would be invented that would improve the computer field and set in motion the beginning of the computer revolution. The first of these two devices was the transistor. Invented in 1947 by William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain of Bell Labs, the transistor was fated to oust the days of vacuum tubes in computers, radios, and other electronics.

    Vaccum Tubes
    The vacuum tube, used up to this time in almost all the computers and calculating machines, had been invented by American physicist Lee De Forest in 1906. The vacuum tube, which is about the size of a human thumb, worked by using large amounts of electricity to heat a filament inside the tube until it was cherry red. One result of heating this filament up was the release of electrons into the tube, which could be controlled by other elements within the tube. De Forest's original device was a triode, which could control the flow of electrons to a positively charged plate inside the tube. A zero could then be represented by the absence of an electron current to the plate; the presence of a small but detectable current to the plate represented a one.


    Transistors
    Vacuum tubes were highly inefficient, required a great deal of space, and needed to be replaced often. Computers of the 1940s and 50s had 18,000 tubes in them and housing all these tubes and cooling the rooms from the heat produced by 18,000 tubes was not cheap. The transistor promised to solve all of these problems and it did so. Transistors, however, had their problems too. The main problem was that transistors, like other electronic components, needed to be soldered together. As a result, the more complex the circuits became, the more complicated and numerous the connections between the individual transistors and the likelihood of faulty wiring increased.

    In 1958, this problem too was solved by Jack St. Clair Kilby of Texas Instruments. He manufactured the first integrated circuit or chip. A chip is really a collection of tiny transistors which are connected together when the transistor is manufactured. Thus, the need for soldering together large numbers of transistors was practically nullified; now only connections were needed to other electronic components. In addition to saving space, the speed of the machine was now increased since there was a diminished distance that the electrons had to follow.


    Circuit Board Silicon Chip

    Mainframes to PCs

    The 1960s saw large mainframe computers become much more common in large industries and with the US military and space program. IBM became the unquestioned market leader in selling these large, expensive, error-prone, and very hard to use machines.
    A veritable explosion of personal computers occurred in the early 1970s, starting with Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak exhibiting the first Apple II at the First West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco. The Apple II boasted built-in BASIC programming language, color graphics, and a 4100 character memory for only $1298. Programs and data could be stored on an everyday audio-cassette recorder. Before the end of the fair, Wozniak and Jobs had secured 300 orders for the Apple II and from there Apple just took off.

    Also introduced in 1977 was the TRS-80. This was a home computer manufactured by Tandy Radio Shack. In its second incarnation, the TRS-80 Model II, came complete with a 64,000 character memory and a disk drive to store programs and data on. At this time, only Apple and TRS had machines with disk drives. With the introduction of the disk drive, personal computer applications took off as a floppy disk was a most convenient publishing medium for distribution of software.

    IBM,
    This chapter is a brief summary of the history of Computers. It is supplemented by the two PBS documentaries video tapes "Inventing the Future" And "The Paperback Computer". The chapter highlights some of the advances to look for in the documentaries. In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things: The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data: Vacuum Tubes (1950s) - one bit on the size of a thumb; Transistors (1950s and 1960s) - one bit on the size of a fingernail; Integrated Circuits (1960s and 70s) - thousands of bits on the size of a hand Silicon computer chips (1970s and on) - millions of bits on the size of a finger nail. The progression of the ease of use of computers: Almost impossible to use except by very patient geniuses (1950s); Programmable by highly trained people only (1960s and 1970s); Useable by just about anyone (1980s and on). to see how computers got smaller, cheaper, and easier to use. First Computers Eniac: Eniac Computer The first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) used a word of 10 decimal digits instead of binary ones like previous automated calculators/computers. ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, using nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes. Storage of all those vacuum tubes and the machinery required to keep the cool took up over 167 square meters (1800 square feet) of floor space. Nonetheless, it had punched-card input and output and arithmetically had 1 multiplier, 1 divider-square rooter, and 20 adders employing decimal "ring counters," which served as adders and also as quick-access (0.0002 seconds) read-write register storage. The executable instructions composing a program were embodied in the separate units of ENIAC, which were plugged together to form a route through the machine for the flow of computations. These connections had to be redone for each different problem, together with presetting function tables and switches. This "wire-your-own" instruction technique was inconvenient, and only with some license could ENIAC be considered programmable; it was, however, efficient in handling the particular programs for which it had been designed. ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC) and was productively used from 1946 to 1955. A controversy developed in 1971, however, over the patentability of ENIAC's basic digital concepts, the claim being made that another U.S. physicist, John V. Atanasoff, had already used the same ideas in a simpler vacuum-tube device he built in the 1930s while at Iowa State College. In 1973, the court found in favor of the company using Atanasoff claim and Atanasoff received the acclaim he rightly deserved. Progression of Hardware In the 1950's two devices would be invented that would improve the computer field and set in motion the beginning of the computer revolution. The first of these two devices was the transistor. Invented in 1947 by William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain of Bell Labs, the transistor was fated to oust the days of vacuum tubes in computers, radios, and other electronics. Vaccum Tubes The vacuum tube, used up to this time in almost all the computers and calculating machines, had been invented by American physicist Lee De Forest in 1906. The vacuum tube, which is about the size of a human thumb, worked by using large amounts of electricity to heat a filament inside the tube until it was cherry red. One result of heating this filament up was the release of electrons into the tube, which could be controlled by other elements within the tube. De Forest's original device was a triode, which could control the flow of electrons to a positively charged plate inside the tube. A zero could then be represented by the absence of an electron current to the plate; the presence of a small but detectable current to the plate represented a one. Transistors Vacuum tubes were highly inefficient, required a great deal of space, and needed to be replaced often. Computers of the 1940s and 50s had 18,000 tubes in them and housing all these tubes and cooling the rooms from the heat produced by 18,000 tubes was not cheap. The transistor promised to solve all of these problems and it did so. Transistors, however, had their problems too. The main problem was that transistors, like other electronic components, needed to be soldered together. As a result, the more complex the circuits became, the more complicated and numerous the connections between the individual transistors and the likelihood of faulty wiring increased. In 1958, this problem too was solved by Jack St. Clair Kilby of Texas Instruments. He manufactured the first integrated circuit or chip. A chip is really a collection of tiny transistors which are connected together when the transistor is manufactured. Thus, the need for soldering together large numbers of transistors was practically nullified; now only connections were needed to other electronic components. In addition to saving space, the speed of the machine was now increased since there was a diminished distance that the electrons had to follow. Circuit Board Silicon Chip Mainframes to PCs The 1960s saw large mainframe computers become much more common in large industries and with the US military and space program. IBM became the unquestioned market leader in selling these large, expensive, error-prone, and very hard to use machines. A veritable explosion of personal computers occurred in the early 1970s, starting with Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak exhibiting the first Apple II at the First West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco. The Apple II boasted built-in BASIC programming language, color graphics, and a 4100 character memory for only $1298. Programs and data could be stored on an everyday audio-cassette recorder. Before the end of the fair, Wozniak and Jobs had secured 300 orders for the Apple II and from there Apple just took off. Also introduced in 1977 was the TRS-80. This was a home computer manufactured by Tandy Radio Shack. In its second incarnation, the TRS-80 Model II, came complete with a 64,000 character memory and a disk drive to store programs and data on. At this time, only Apple and TRS had machines with disk drives. With the introduction of the disk drive, personal computer applications took off as a floppy disk was a most convenient publishing medium for distribution of software. IBM,
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  • The executable instructions composing a program were embodied in the separate units of ENIAC, which were plugged together to form a route through the machine for the flow of computations. These connections had to be redone for each different problem, together with presetting function tables and switches. This "wire-your-own" instruction technique was inconvenient, and only with some license could ENIAC be considered programmable; it was, however, efficient in handling the particular programs for which it had been designed. ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC) and was productively used from 1946 to 1955. A controversy developed in 1971, however, over the patentability of ENIAC's basic digital concepts, the claim being made that another U.S. physicist, John V. Atanasoff, had already used the same ideas in a simpler vacuum-tube device he built in the 1930s while at Iowa State College. In 1973, the court found in favor of the company using Atanasoff claim and Atanasoff received the acclaim he rightly deserved.
    The executable instructions composing a program were embodied in the separate units of ENIAC, which were plugged together to form a route through the machine for the flow of computations. These connections had to be redone for each different problem, together with presetting function tables and switches. This "wire-your-own" instruction technique was inconvenient, and only with some license could ENIAC be considered programmable; it was, however, efficient in handling the particular programs for which it had been designed. ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC) and was productively used from 1946 to 1955. A controversy developed in 1971, however, over the patentability of ENIAC's basic digital concepts, the claim being made that another U.S. physicist, John V. Atanasoff, had already used the same ideas in a simpler vacuum-tube device he built in the 1930s while at Iowa State College. In 1973, the court found in favor of the company using Atanasoff claim and Atanasoff received the acclaim he rightly deserved.
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  • Earn money before moslty read this Rules on how to use e-Sathi

    1. To get points please do the genuine post, comments and likes
    2. Your points can be converted to NPR
    3. 100 points will be equal to NPR 1.0
    4. Once you wallet balance reaches NPR 500, send offline message to me or Barsha madam, see video from here: https://youtu.be/x_nOgZMyvnE
    5. If you post too many unnecessary comments, likes or posts your account will be banned and deleted
    6. If you want to refer and earn NPR 10.00 or NPR 5.00 (price subject to change), invite your friends through affiliates link (Go to Profile --> Settings --> Affiliates), going here: https://www.e-sathi.com/settings/affiliates
    7. Please protect your e-Sathi account with 2FA (Two Factor Authentication), going here: https://www.e-sathi.com/settings/two-factor
    8. e-Sathi users can watch movies for free from here:
    https://www.e-sathi.com/movies/
    9. We are not facebooking but we are e-Sathi(ing), so whatever you post, comment and like is moderated, and we have zero-tolerance policy against fake accounts, spam or spammers (go to zuckerberg platform to do that, it is not allowed here)
    10. Please help us in supporting e-Sathi, we take your feedback and make changes based on your feedback and suggestions
    11. We are working now on a new theme and native mobile app, once we will finalise we will send you the notification
    (Limited time offer and valid for one user for one time only...terms and condition may apply)

    Note: if you will make Rs 500 second time, your wallet will reset to Rs 0 for the period of 90 days. Further information can be found from our office, Phone: +977 56-562130

    Thank you for your understanding! Happy e-Sathi(ing).
    Earn money before moslty read this Rules on how to use e-Sathi 1. To get points please do the genuine post, comments and likes 2. Your points can be converted to NPR 3. 100 points will be equal to NPR 1.0 4. Once you wallet balance reaches NPR 500, send offline message to me or Barsha madam, see video from here: https://youtu.be/x_nOgZMyvnE 5. If you post too many unnecessary comments, likes or posts your account will be banned and deleted 6. If you want to refer and earn NPR 10.00 or NPR 5.00 (price subject to change), invite your friends through affiliates link (Go to Profile --> Settings --> Affiliates), going here: https://www.e-sathi.com/settings/affiliates 7. Please protect your e-Sathi account with 2FA (Two Factor Authentication), going here: https://www.e-sathi.com/settings/two-factor 8. e-Sathi users can watch movies for free from here: https://www.e-sathi.com/movies/ 9. We are not facebooking but we are e-Sathi(ing), so whatever you post, comment and like is moderated, and we have zero-tolerance policy against fake accounts, spam or spammers (go to zuckerberg platform to do that, it is not allowed here) 10. Please help us in supporting e-Sathi, we take your feedback and make changes based on your feedback and suggestions 11. We are working now on a new theme and native mobile app, once we will finalise we will send you the notification (Limited time offer and valid for one user for one time only...terms and condition may apply) Note: if you will make Rs 500 second time, your wallet will reset to Rs 0 for the period of 90 days. Further information can be found from our office, Phone: +977 56-562130 Thank you for your understanding! Happy e-Sathi(ing).
    2
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  • Apple Tech Support Number for How to reset and restore your Apple iPhone's location, setting, network and more – visit here http://bit.ly/2Babc6L

    #applesupport #appletechsupport #applecustomersupport #apple #iphonesupport #iphonetechsupport #applesupport #iphone
    Apple Tech Support Number for How to reset and restore your Apple iPhone's location, setting, network and more – visit here http://bit.ly/2Babc6L #applesupport #appletechsupport #applecustomersupport #apple #iphonesupport #iphonetechsupport #applesupport #iphone
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  • How to Backup and Reset your Xbox 360
    #Xbox
    #Xbox360
    #Games
    https://my-norton.net/how-to-backup-and-reset-your-xbox-360/
    Factory resetting your Xbox 360 will be beneficial for some good reasons. Resetting your Xbox 360 is a quite easy and simple process. But it is a serious step that you can’t undo in future. Resetting will wipe all of your console hard drive data. You’ll lose games, apps, profiles, and other data

    How to Backup and Reset your Xbox 360 #Xbox #Xbox360 #Games https://my-norton.net/how-to-backup-and-reset-your-xbox-360/ Factory resetting your Xbox 360 will be beneficial for some good reasons. Resetting your Xbox 360 is a quite easy and simple process. But it is a serious step that you can’t undo in future. Resetting will wipe all of your console hard drive data. You’ll lose games, apps, profiles, and other data
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  • Rules on how to use e-Sathi

    1. To get points please do the genuine post, comments and likes
    2. Your points can be converted to NPR
    3. 100 points will be equal to NPR 1.0
    4. Once you wallet balance reaches NPR 500, send offline message to me or Barsha madam, see video from here: https://youtu.be/x_nOgZMyvnE
    5. If you post too many unnecessary comments, likes or posts and any external affiliate links your account will be banned and deleted.
    6. If you want to refer and earn NPR 10.00 or NPR 5.00 (price subject to change), invite your friends through affiliates link (Go to Profile --> Settings --> Affiliates), going here: https://www.e-sathi.com/settings/affiliates
    7. Please protect your e-Sathi account with 2FA (Two Factor Authentication), going here: https://www.e-sathi.com/settings/two-factor
    8. e-Sathi users can watch movies for free from here:
    https://www.e-sathi.com/movies/
    9. We are not facebooking but we are e-Sathi(ing), so whatever you post, comment and like is moderated, and we have zero-tolerance policy against fake accounts, spam or spammers (go to zuckerberg platform to do that, it is not allowed here)
    10. Please help us in supporting e-Sathi, we take your feedback and make changes based on your feedback and suggestions
    11. We are working now on a new theme and native mobile app, once we will finalise we will send you the notification
    (Limited time offer and valid for one user for one time only...terms and condition may apply)

    Note: if you will make Rs 500 second time, your wallet will reset to Rs 0 for the period of 90 days. Further information can be found from our office, Phone: +977 56-562130

    Thank you for your understanding! Happy e-Sathi(ing).

    Rules on how to use e-Sathi 1. To get points please do the genuine post, comments and likes 2. Your points can be converted to NPR 3. 100 points will be equal to NPR 1.0 4. Once you wallet balance reaches NPR 500, send offline message to me or Barsha madam, see video from here: https://youtu.be/x_nOgZMyvnE 5. If you post too many unnecessary comments, likes or posts and any external affiliate links your account will be banned and deleted. 6. If you want to refer and earn NPR 10.00 or NPR 5.00 (price subject to change), invite your friends through affiliates link (Go to Profile --> Settings --> Affiliates), going here: https://www.e-sathi.com/settings/affiliates 7. Please protect your e-Sathi account with 2FA (Two Factor Authentication), going here: https://www.e-sathi.com/settings/two-factor 8. e-Sathi users can watch movies for free from here: https://www.e-sathi.com/movies/ 9. We are not facebooking but we are e-Sathi(ing), so whatever you post, comment and like is moderated, and we have zero-tolerance policy against fake accounts, spam or spammers (go to zuckerberg platform to do that, it is not allowed here) 10. Please help us in supporting e-Sathi, we take your feedback and make changes based on your feedback and suggestions 11. We are working now on a new theme and native mobile app, once we will finalise we will send you the notification (Limited time offer and valid for one user for one time only...terms and condition may apply) Note: if you will make Rs 500 second time, your wallet will reset to Rs 0 for the period of 90 days. Further information can be found from our office, Phone: +977 56-562130 Thank you for your understanding! Happy e-Sathi(ing).
    105
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