• Les Vitalities Schweiz Kaufen, Preis, Erfahrungen & Test Weitere Informationen erhalten Sie hier. http://switzerlandsupplements.ch/les-vitalities-schweiz/ #LesVitalities #LesVitalitiesPreis #LesVitalitiesSchweiz
    Les Vitalities Schweiz Kaufen, Preis, Erfahrungen & Test Weitere Informationen erhalten Sie hier. http://switzerlandsupplements.ch/les-vitalities-schweiz/ #LesVitalities #LesVitalitiesPreis #LesVitalitiesSchweiz
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  • Replenish 360: IV Hydration Therapy and Wellness Services
    https://yourcprmd.com/replenish360 -
    Replenish 360 offers one of the most affordable wellness and preventative services that are personalized and one of the most activating one-of-a-kind IV drip and infusions, vitamin and antioxidant supplementation, micronutrient therapy, and other additional supplementary wellness services to “renew your body, refresh your mind, and restore performance.”
    #IVTherapyNearMe #CoachellaIVDrips
    Replenish 360: IV Hydration Therapy and Wellness Services https://yourcprmd.com/replenish360 - Replenish 360 offers one of the most affordable wellness and preventative services that are personalized and one of the most activating one-of-a-kind IV drip and infusions, vitamin and antioxidant supplementation, micronutrient therapy, and other additional supplementary wellness services to “renew your body, refresh your mind, and restore performance.” #IVTherapyNearMe #CoachellaIVDrips
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  • Top Rated Most Nutritious #Dog #Food at offer by Healthy Tails! Choose the Best Dog #Supplements for Healthy Coat and Natural Diet for #Dogs and #Cats!
    https://www.thehealthytails.com/categories/products
    Top Rated Most Nutritious #Dog #Food at offer by Healthy Tails! Choose the Best Dog #Supplements for Healthy Coat and Natural Diet for #Dogs and #Cats! https://www.thehealthytails.com/categories/products
    Best Dog Supplements for Healthy Coat | Natural Diet for Dogs - Healthy Tails
    Top Rated Most Nutritious Dog Food at offer by Healthy Tails! Choose the Best Dog supplements for healthy coat and Natural Diet for Dogs and Cats!
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  • Cats are highly prone to Kidney Issues! Protect your #Cats with #Kidney Support #Supplement for Cats as offered by Healthy Tails and maintain Perfect Health of your Cats
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    Cats are highly prone to Kidney Issues! Protect your Cats with Kidney Support Supplement for Cats as offered by Healthy Tails and maintain Perfect Health of your Cats.
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  • How to Check NEB Class 11 Results with Marksheet:

    1. Check NEB 11 Result Via SMS

    Nepal Telecom (NTC): To get the class 11 results from NTC mobile, you need to send an SMS: Type NEBSymbol No. and Send it to 1600

    Ncell: To get the Class 11 results from Ncell number, you need to send an SMS: Type NEBSymbol No. and Send it to 5000

    Sparrow SMS: To get Grade 11 result via Sparrow SMS, you have to send an SMS: Type NEBSymbol No. and Send it to 35001

    Example: Type (NEB 554455800 and Send 1600)



    2. Via NEB Official Website

    Visit the official website of NEB (www.neb.gov.np/result)
    Type your symbol number (e.g.: - 02071382) in the input box and click submit your result will appear on the screen.



    3. Via Other Websites:

    NEB website: www.neb.gov.np
    Nepal Telecom website: http://neb.ntc.net.np/
    Ministry of Education Website: www.moe.gov.np
    4. Via Notice Board:

    Details regarding NEB results can be found by dialing Notice Board Number 1618016639002

    5. Via USSD:

    By Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD), people need to dial *1600*Symbol No# to get the resulting reply instantly.
    How to Check NEB Class 11 Results with Marksheet: 1. Check NEB 11 Result Via SMS Nepal Telecom (NTC): To get the class 11 results from NTC mobile, you need to send an SMS: Type NEBSymbol No. and Send it to 1600 Ncell: To get the Class 11 results from Ncell number, you need to send an SMS: Type NEBSymbol No. and Send it to 5000 Sparrow SMS: To get Grade 11 result via Sparrow SMS, you have to send an SMS: Type NEBSymbol No. and Send it to 35001 Example: Type (NEB 554455800 and Send 1600) 2. Via NEB Official Website Visit the official website of NEB (www.neb.gov.np/result) Type your symbol number (e.g.: - 02071382) in the input box and click submit your result will appear on the screen. 3. Via Other Websites: NEB website: www.neb.gov.np Nepal Telecom website: http://neb.ntc.net.np/ Ministry of Education Website: www.moe.gov.np 4. Via Notice Board: Details regarding NEB results can be found by dialing Notice Board Number 1618016639002 5. Via USSD: By Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD), people need to dial *1600*Symbol No# to get the resulting reply instantly.
    3
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  • The telephone instrument

    The word telephone, from the Greek roots tēle, “far,” and phonē, “sound,” was applied as early as the late 17th century to the string telephone familiar to children, and it was later used to refer to the megaphone and the speaking tube, but in modern usage it refers solely to electrical devices derived from the inventions of Alexander Graham Bell and others. Within 20 years of the 1876 Bell patent, the telephone instrument, as modified by Thomas Watson, Emil Berliner, Thomas Edison, and others, acquired a functional design that has not changed fundamentally in more than a century. Since the invention of the transistor in 1947, metal wiring and other heavy hardware have been replaced by lightweight and compact microcircuitry. Advances in electronics have improved the performance of the basic design, and they also have allowed the introduction of a number of “smart” features such as automatic redialing, call-number identification, wireless transmission, and visual data display. Such advances supplement, but do not replace, the basic telephone design. That design is described in this section, as is the remarkable history of the telephone’s development, from the earliest experimental devices to the modern digital instrument.
    The telephone instrument The word telephone, from the Greek roots tēle, “far,” and phonē, “sound,” was applied as early as the late 17th century to the string telephone familiar to children, and it was later used to refer to the megaphone and the speaking tube, but in modern usage it refers solely to electrical devices derived from the inventions of Alexander Graham Bell and others. Within 20 years of the 1876 Bell patent, the telephone instrument, as modified by Thomas Watson, Emil Berliner, Thomas Edison, and others, acquired a functional design that has not changed fundamentally in more than a century. Since the invention of the transistor in 1947, metal wiring and other heavy hardware have been replaced by lightweight and compact microcircuitry. Advances in electronics have improved the performance of the basic design, and they also have allowed the introduction of a number of “smart” features such as automatic redialing, call-number identification, wireless transmission, and visual data display. Such advances supplement, but do not replace, the basic telephone design. That design is described in this section, as is the remarkable history of the telephone’s development, from the earliest experimental devices to the modern digital instrument.
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  • his is achieved by supplementing their underlying cellular embodied chemistry with a specialist organ (although still based on chemistry) that we call its brain, able to rapidly process electrical signals. Advanced minds can collect and process vast inputs of data by ‘projecting’ the derived output back onto its environmental source, that is by acting.
    his is achieved by supplementing their underlying cellular embodied chemistry with a specialist organ (although still based on chemistry) that we call its brain, able to rapidly process electrical signals. Advanced minds can collect and process vast inputs of data by ‘projecting’ the derived output back onto its environmental source, that is by acting.
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  • does education reflect society or does itshape it? This would then lead us naturally to a supplementary question; if educationdoes shape society, is this done knowingly and, if so, does it have a particular agenda?
    does education reflect society or does itshape it? This would then lead us naturally to a supplementary question; if educationdoes shape society, is this done knowingly and, if so, does it have a particular agenda?
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  • SUPPLEMENTARY READING
    SUPPLEMENTARY READING
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  • This chapter is a brief summary of the history of Computers. It is supplemented by the two PBS documentaries video tapes "Inventing the Future" And "The Paperback Computer". The chapter highlights some of the advances to look for in the documentaries.
    In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things:

    The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data:
    Vacuum Tubes (1950s) - one bit on the size of a thumb;
    Transistors (1950s and 1960s) - one bit on the size of a fingernail;
    Integrated Circuits (1960s and 70s) - thousands of bits on the size of a hand
    Silicon computer chips (1970s and on) - millions of bits on the size of a finger nail.

    The progression of the ease of use of computers:
    Almost impossible to use except by very patient geniuses (1950s);
    Programmable by highly trained people only (1960s and 1970s);
    Useable by just about anyone (1980s and on).
    to see how computers got smaller, cheaper, and easier to use.

    First Computers

    Eniac:
    Eniac Computer
    The first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) used a word of 10 decimal digits instead of binary ones like previous automated calculators/computers. ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, using nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes. Storage of all those vacuum tubes and the machinery required to keep the cool took up over 167 square meters (1800 square feet) of floor space. Nonetheless, it had punched-card input and output and arithmetically had 1 multiplier, 1 divider-square rooter, and 20 adders employing decimal "ring counters," which served as adders and also as quick-access (0.0002 seconds) read-write register storage.

    The executable instructions composing a program were embodied in the separate units of ENIAC, which were plugged together to form a route through the machine for the flow of computations. These connections had to be redone for each different problem, together with presetting function tables and switches. This "wire-your-own" instruction technique was inconvenient, and only with some license could ENIAC be considered programmable; it was, however, efficient in handling the particular programs for which it had been designed. ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC) and was productively used from 1946 to 1955. A controversy developed in 1971, however, over the patentability of ENIAC's basic digital concepts, the claim being made that another U.S. physicist, John V. Atanasoff, had already used the same ideas in a simpler vacuum-tube device he built in the 1930s while at Iowa State College. In 1973, the court found in favor of the company using Atanasoff claim and Atanasoff received the acclaim he rightly deserved.









    Progression of Hardware

    In the 1950's two devices would be invented that would improve the computer field and set in motion the beginning of the computer revolution. The first of these two devices was the transistor. Invented in 1947 by William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain of Bell Labs, the transistor was fated to oust the days of vacuum tubes in computers, radios, and other electronics.

    Vaccum Tubes
    The vacuum tube, used up to this time in almost all the computers and calculating machines, had been invented by American physicist Lee De Forest in 1906. The vacuum tube, which is about the size of a human thumb, worked by using large amounts of electricity to heat a filament inside the tube until it was cherry red. One result of heating this filament up was the release of electrons into the tube, which could be controlled by other elements within the tube. De Forest's original device was a triode, which could control the flow of electrons to a positively charged plate inside the tube. A zero could then be represented by the absence of an electron current to the plate; the presence of a small but detectable current to the plate represented a one.


    Transistors
    Vacuum tubes were highly inefficient, required a great deal of space, and needed to be replaced often. Computers of the 1940s and 50s had 18,000 tubes in them and housing all these tubes and cooling the rooms from the heat produced by 18,000 tubes was not cheap. The transistor promised to solve all of these problems and it did so. Transistors, however, had their problems too. The main problem was that transistors, like other electronic components, needed to be soldered together. As a result, the more complex the circuits became, the more complicated and numerous the connections between the individual transistors and the likelihood of faulty wiring increased.

    In 1958, this problem too was solved by Jack St. Clair Kilby of Texas Instruments. He manufactured the first integrated circuit or chip. A chip is really a collection of tiny transistors which are connected together when the transistor is manufactured. Thus, the need for soldering together large numbers of transistors was practically nullified; now only connections were needed to other electronic components. In addition to saving space, the speed of the machine was now increased since there was a diminished distance that the electrons had to follow.


    Circuit Board Silicon Chip

    Mainframes to PCs

    The 1960s saw large mainframe computers become much more common in large industries and with the US military and space program. IBM became the unquestioned market leader in selling these large, expensive, error-prone, and very hard to use machines.
    A veritable explosion of personal computers occurred in the early 1970s, starting with Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak exhibiting the first Apple II at the First West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco. The Apple II boasted built-in BASIC programming language, color graphics, and a 4100 character memory for only $1298. Programs and data could be stored on an everyday audio-cassette recorder. Before the end of the fair, Wozniak and Jobs had secured 300 orders for the Apple II and from there Apple just took off.

    Also introduced in 1977 was the TRS-80. This was a home computer manufactured by Tandy Radio Shack. In its second incarnation, the TRS-80 Model II, came complete with a 64,000 character memory and a disk drive to store programs and data on. At this time, only Apple and TRS had machines with disk drives. With the introduction of the disk drive, personal computer applications took off as a floppy disk was a most convenient publishing medium for distribution of software.

    IBM,
    This chapter is a brief summary of the history of Computers. It is supplemented by the two PBS documentaries video tapes "Inventing the Future" And "The Paperback Computer". The chapter highlights some of the advances to look for in the documentaries. In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things: The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data: Vacuum Tubes (1950s) - one bit on the size of a thumb; Transistors (1950s and 1960s) - one bit on the size of a fingernail; Integrated Circuits (1960s and 70s) - thousands of bits on the size of a hand Silicon computer chips (1970s and on) - millions of bits on the size of a finger nail. The progression of the ease of use of computers: Almost impossible to use except by very patient geniuses (1950s); Programmable by highly trained people only (1960s and 1970s); Useable by just about anyone (1980s and on). to see how computers got smaller, cheaper, and easier to use. First Computers Eniac: Eniac Computer The first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) used a word of 10 decimal digits instead of binary ones like previous automated calculators/computers. ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, using nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes. Storage of all those vacuum tubes and the machinery required to keep the cool took up over 167 square meters (1800 square feet) of floor space. Nonetheless, it had punched-card input and output and arithmetically had 1 multiplier, 1 divider-square rooter, and 20 adders employing decimal "ring counters," which served as adders and also as quick-access (0.0002 seconds) read-write register storage. The executable instructions composing a program were embodied in the separate units of ENIAC, which were plugged together to form a route through the machine for the flow of computations. These connections had to be redone for each different problem, together with presetting function tables and switches. This "wire-your-own" instruction technique was inconvenient, and only with some license could ENIAC be considered programmable; it was, however, efficient in handling the particular programs for which it had been designed. ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC) and was productively used from 1946 to 1955. A controversy developed in 1971, however, over the patentability of ENIAC's basic digital concepts, the claim being made that another U.S. physicist, John V. Atanasoff, had already used the same ideas in a simpler vacuum-tube device he built in the 1930s while at Iowa State College. In 1973, the court found in favor of the company using Atanasoff claim and Atanasoff received the acclaim he rightly deserved. Progression of Hardware In the 1950's two devices would be invented that would improve the computer field and set in motion the beginning of the computer revolution. The first of these two devices was the transistor. Invented in 1947 by William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain of Bell Labs, the transistor was fated to oust the days of vacuum tubes in computers, radios, and other electronics. Vaccum Tubes The vacuum tube, used up to this time in almost all the computers and calculating machines, had been invented by American physicist Lee De Forest in 1906. The vacuum tube, which is about the size of a human thumb, worked by using large amounts of electricity to heat a filament inside the tube until it was cherry red. One result of heating this filament up was the release of electrons into the tube, which could be controlled by other elements within the tube. De Forest's original device was a triode, which could control the flow of electrons to a positively charged plate inside the tube. A zero could then be represented by the absence of an electron current to the plate; the presence of a small but detectable current to the plate represented a one. Transistors Vacuum tubes were highly inefficient, required a great deal of space, and needed to be replaced often. Computers of the 1940s and 50s had 18,000 tubes in them and housing all these tubes and cooling the rooms from the heat produced by 18,000 tubes was not cheap. The transistor promised to solve all of these problems and it did so. Transistors, however, had their problems too. The main problem was that transistors, like other electronic components, needed to be soldered together. As a result, the more complex the circuits became, the more complicated and numerous the connections between the individual transistors and the likelihood of faulty wiring increased. In 1958, this problem too was solved by Jack St. Clair Kilby of Texas Instruments. He manufactured the first integrated circuit or chip. A chip is really a collection of tiny transistors which are connected together when the transistor is manufactured. Thus, the need for soldering together large numbers of transistors was practically nullified; now only connections were needed to other electronic components. In addition to saving space, the speed of the machine was now increased since there was a diminished distance that the electrons had to follow. Circuit Board Silicon Chip Mainframes to PCs The 1960s saw large mainframe computers become much more common in large industries and with the US military and space program. IBM became the unquestioned market leader in selling these large, expensive, error-prone, and very hard to use machines. A veritable explosion of personal computers occurred in the early 1970s, starting with Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak exhibiting the first Apple II at the First West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco. The Apple II boasted built-in BASIC programming language, color graphics, and a 4100 character memory for only $1298. Programs and data could be stored on an everyday audio-cassette recorder. Before the end of the fair, Wozniak and Jobs had secured 300 orders for the Apple II and from there Apple just took off. Also introduced in 1977 was the TRS-80. This was a home computer manufactured by Tandy Radio Shack. In its second incarnation, the TRS-80 Model II, came complete with a 64,000 character memory and a disk drive to store programs and data on. At this time, only Apple and TRS had machines with disk drives. With the introduction of the disk drive, personal computer applications took off as a floppy disk was a most convenient publishing medium for distribution of software. IBM,
    2
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  • This chapter is a brief summary of the history of Computers. It is supplemented by the two PBS documentaries video tapes "Inventing the Future" And "The Paperback Computer". The chapter highlights some of the advances to look for in the documentaries.
    In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things:

    The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data:
    This chapter is a brief summary of the history of Computers. It is supplemented by the two PBS documentaries video tapes "Inventing the Future" And "The Paperback Computer". The chapter highlights some of the advances to look for in the documentaries. In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things: The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data:
    0 Comments 0 Shares

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