Domestic violence victimization among Chinese women

This study conducted a survey of domestic violence victimization among women in China. Previously little research has been conducted on the subject of domestic violence against Chinese women as well as its relevance to their own economic power.To get more news about https://www.shine.cn/feature/art-culture/2203163163/ women in ancient china, you can visit shine news official website.

Methods: Using online questionnaires, this study collected data about 412 women with current or previous marital status who came from four income brackets in Beijing and Shanghai.

Results: It revealed that the proportions of physical, emotional, economic, and sexual violence they experienced were about 27.91%, 62.38%, 21.12%, and 30.10%, respectively. Women belonging to the highest income bracket faced almost the same risk of domestic violence compared with other income groups. Furthermore, there was a slight upward tendency in physical and emotional violence victimization in the highest-income group. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that adverse childhood experiences, arguments between couples due to different opinions regarding gender ideologies, and the approval level for specific gender ideologies were common significant factors across different income brackets. When all income brackets were considered, a higher income was tested as a protective factor with regard to sexual violence. As for the income gap between couples, women whose incomes were “once higher than that of the husband but now lower/almost the same” or “always higher than that of the husband” faced a higher risk of physical violence than women whose incomes were “always lower than/almost the same as that of the husband.”

Discussion: This study not only revealed the reality of domestic violence victimization in China but also suggested that more attention should be paid to high-income women's domestic violence victimization as well as the importance of helping them both through academia and domestic violence support institutions.
1. Introduction
Intimate partner domestic violence, as a category of violence against women, causes serious physical and psychological damage to its victims (World Health Organization, 2005). Approximately 18% of the global population of women lives in China (The World Bank, 2021). Nevertheless, the issues of domestic violence against Chinese women as well as their own economic status have not been sufficiently unveiled in research. This presents a critical void with regard to clarifying the reality of worldwide domestic violence victimization.
2. Materials and methods
In this article, the term domestic violence refers specifically to intimate partner violence, and it is divided into physical, emotional, economic, and sexual violence (Gender Equality Bureau Cabinet Office, 2021). Globally, 15–71% of women have reported experiencing physical or sexual violence perpetrated by an intimate partner at some point in their lifetime (World Health Organization, 2005). According to a national survey of women's social status that is conducted every decade in China, ~8.6% of women have experienced physical and emotional violence from their spouse (China Women's News, 2021). However, research investigating the victimization of Chinese women across different economic strata (e.g., based on personal income) has been scarce.

3. Results
The basic information of the participants, including their education levels, education level of spouses/former spouses, income gap and its changes between couples, and number of children are presented in Table 3.
Domestic violence victimization among Chinese women This study conducted a survey of domestic violence victimization among women in China. Previously little research has been conducted on the subject of domestic violence against Chinese women as well as its relevance to their own economic power.To get more news about https://www.shine.cn/feature/art-culture/2203163163/ women in ancient china, you can visit shine news official website. Methods: Using online questionnaires, this study collected data about 412 women with current or previous marital status who came from four income brackets in Beijing and Shanghai. Results: It revealed that the proportions of physical, emotional, economic, and sexual violence they experienced were about 27.91%, 62.38%, 21.12%, and 30.10%, respectively. Women belonging to the highest income bracket faced almost the same risk of domestic violence compared with other income groups. Furthermore, there was a slight upward tendency in physical and emotional violence victimization in the highest-income group. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that adverse childhood experiences, arguments between couples due to different opinions regarding gender ideologies, and the approval level for specific gender ideologies were common significant factors across different income brackets. When all income brackets were considered, a higher income was tested as a protective factor with regard to sexual violence. As for the income gap between couples, women whose incomes were “once higher than that of the husband but now lower/almost the same” or “always higher than that of the husband” faced a higher risk of physical violence than women whose incomes were “always lower than/almost the same as that of the husband.” Discussion: This study not only revealed the reality of domestic violence victimization in China but also suggested that more attention should be paid to high-income women's domestic violence victimization as well as the importance of helping them both through academia and domestic violence support institutions. 1. Introduction Intimate partner domestic violence, as a category of violence against women, causes serious physical and psychological damage to its victims (World Health Organization, 2005). Approximately 18% of the global population of women lives in China (The World Bank, 2021). Nevertheless, the issues of domestic violence against Chinese women as well as their own economic status have not been sufficiently unveiled in research. This presents a critical void with regard to clarifying the reality of worldwide domestic violence victimization. 2. Materials and methods In this article, the term domestic violence refers specifically to intimate partner violence, and it is divided into physical, emotional, economic, and sexual violence (Gender Equality Bureau Cabinet Office, 2021). Globally, 15–71% of women have reported experiencing physical or sexual violence perpetrated by an intimate partner at some point in their lifetime (World Health Organization, 2005). According to a national survey of women's social status that is conducted every decade in China, ~8.6% of women have experienced physical and emotional violence from their spouse (China Women's News, 2021). However, research investigating the victimization of Chinese women across different economic strata (e.g., based on personal income) has been scarce. 3. Results The basic information of the participants, including their education levels, education level of spouses/former spouses, income gap and its changes between couples, and number of children are presented in Table 3.
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